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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-December 2018
Volume 1 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 59-121

Online since Friday, February 22, 2019

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Ethical concerns in fertility preservation in the young p. 59
Nalini Mahajan
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Breast cancer and Fertility Part 2- Pregnancy Associated Breast Cancer p. 61
Nalini Mahajan
Pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) refers to breast cancer (BC) diagnosed during pregnancy or within the first postpartum year. The increasing incidence follows the increase in age at first childbirth. Diagnostic delay due to physiological breast changes of pregnancy leads to the tumor being diagnosed at a more advanced stage. Since the termination of pregnancy does not alter the course of disease, patients can be offered BC management during pregnancy with a good outcome. Chemotherapy (CT) can be given safely during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. In the first trimester, the option of surgery is available while during puerperium, radiotherapy can be safely administered in addition to CT. Prognosis is related to the stage and grade of the tumor. Neonatal outcomes are reassuring. This article gives an overview of the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of PABC.
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Fertility preservation network in Asia: Current status and issues of fertility preservation network in Japan p. 71
Yasushi Takai
Fertility preservation (FP)/oncofertility is a crucial facet of cancer supportive care. The publication of FP guidelines is becoming increasingly prevalent in Japan. However, the viability of the guidelines is predicted on a well-developed FP network comprising of cancer hospitals, assisted reproductive technology (ART) hospitals/clinics, and oncofertility center, and the quality of the FP network in Japan varies greatly based on the region. Oncofertility care availability is influenced by the sustainability of each network and public financial support which may be facilitated by oncofertility registry system which recently launched in Japan.
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Comparison of ovarian reserve and response to gonadotropin stimulation in fertile and infertile Indian women based on ovarian reserve markers, anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count p. 74
Jasneet Kaur, Nalini Mahajan
Background: Poor ovarian response to gonadotropin (GT) stimulation during assisted reproductive technology cycles is often encountered in infertile women and is considered to be a cause of their infertility. Poor ovarian response is mostly a result of a low ovarian reserve (OR), implying that there may be an earlier depletion of the oocyte pool in infertile women. Aim of the Study: To evaluate whether infertile Indian women below the age of 35 years have an earlier depletion of their OR and a lower ovarian response to GT in comparison to age-matched fertile controls. Materials and Methodology: A total of 146 women undergoing in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection at our fertility center between March 2017 and August 2017 were prospectively enrolled in this study. Anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count (AMH and AFC) assessment was done for women enrolled in the study in the early follicular phase. Flexible GnRH antagonist protocol was followed. Age, AMH, AFC, body mass index, and response to ovarian stimulation (OS) were compared between the fertile and infertile groups. We also sought to determine which among these had the best prediction for ovarian response to controlled OS. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was used for comparisons between study groups with respect to percentages. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: When adjusted for the differences in the demographic variables, we found no difference in the AMH (P = 0.298) and AFC (P = 0.302) between the fertile and infertile women. In addition, there was no difference in the ovarian response; the mean number of oocytes retrieved was 15.8 ± 7.5 in the fertile group and 14.3 ± 7.5 in the infertile group (P = 0.510). AMH had the strongest correlation with the number of oocytes retrieved (r = 2.11) in comparison to AFC (r = 0.08) and age (r = −0.45) Conclusion: There is no difference in OR and response in fertile and infertile Indian having similar demographics and basal characteristics.
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Intrauterine autologous platelet-rich plasma therapy to improve implantation rates in patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer: A pilot study p. 81
Anju Madhavan, Padmaja Naidu, Kum Kum Rani, Jasneet Kaur, Nalini Mahajan
Background: Successful implantation is a well-orchestrated event requiring the presence of a healthy embryo, a receptive endometrium, appropriate embryo endometrial cross-talk, and adequate maternal immune protection. Despite advances in assisted reproductive technology, there are insignificant improvements in the implantation and pregnancy rates. Intrauterine infusion of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) might improve implantation rates through its paracrine effects by recruiting growth factors and cytokines that favor decidualization and implantation. Objectives: The objective of the study is to study whether intrauterine PRP improves implantation rates in patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET). Subjects and Methods: In this retrospective study, we collected data of patients who underwent FET in Mother and Child Hospital for 11 months from January 2018 to November 2018. We screened data of 98 patients who had at least one previous failed FET and underwent subsequent FET. The patients were divided into a study and control group. The study group received Intrauterine PRP before FET, while the control group did not. All patients underwent the same hormone replacement therapy regimen for endometrial preparation. Main Outcome Measure: The main outcomes studied were the implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) after embryo transfer. Results: Patient demographics such as mean age, body mass index, and anti-mullerian hormone of both groups were comparable. Overall, the CPR was 42.8% in the control group and 47.6% in the intervention group, and the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Intrauterine PRP does not increase the implantation rates/CPR significantly in patients who have had one previous FET failure.
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Strategies for fertility preservation in young patients with cancer p. 86
Devika Gunasheela, Jyothi Menon, N Ashwin
Advances in cancer therapy have given a chance for patients suffering from cancers to have a productive life. Future effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy or fertility should be discussed with all cancer patients who have reproductive potential. Fertility preservation stratergies for females include oocyte or embryo preservation, cortical tissue cryopreservation, ovarian transportation. Fertility preservation stratergies for male involve cryopreservation of semen. Fertility preservation in cancer patients should be approached with a multidisciplinary setting.
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Fertility preservation in testicular seminoma p. 89
Madhuri Patil, Priyanka Reddy
Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35, although it accounts for only 1% of all cancers in men. Germ cell tumors (GCTs) account for 95% of testicular cancers. Two broad categories of testicular tumors have been described, one pure seminoma (no nonseminomatous elements present) and the other is nonseminomatous GCTs. It is one the most curable neoplasm with 5 years survival rate of 98%–99% when diagnosed at an early stage. We present here one such case of metastatic seminoma, where the semen was cryopreserved for fertility preservation. Although the sample was oligoasthenospermic, a successful pregnancy and live birth was obtained with intrauterine insemination of the frozen sample in an controlled ovarian stimulation cycle. Testicular tumors can impair fertility after treatment in majority of patients. Fertility preservation methods such as semen freezing, sperm freezing using epididymal or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) or testicular tissue freezing provides hope for those who wish to father a child latter.
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Fertility preservation in a premenarcheal female with sickle cell anemia p. 96
Sonu Balhara Ahlawat, Sarabpreet Singh
The objective of the study was fertility preservation in a premenarcheal female with sickle cell anemia (SCA) using controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte preservation. The study design was a case report. The study was conducted at the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care private hospital. A 15-year-old premenarcheal female with Tanner stage 3 breast development and Tanner stage 1 pubic hair diagnosed with SCA, referred by a medical oncologist for fertility preservation before undergoing chemotherapy and bone marrow transplant. The interventions were evaluation of ovarian reserve, ovarian stimulation (OS), transvaginal oocyte aspiration, and oocyte cryopreservation (OC). The main outcome measure was cryopreservation of mature oocytes before the antineoplastic therapy. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation allowed for cryopreservation of ten mature oocytes before the start of the patient's gonadotoxic treatment. OS and OC can be successfully performed in premenarcheal/peripubertal SCA patients before undergoing chemotherapy, thus providing a viable option for fertility preservation.
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A case report on severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a pregnancy with torsion of bilateral enlarged ovaries with acute abdomen p. 99
Sankar Kumar Das, Priyanka Roy
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a complication of fertility treatment, which uses pharmacological ovarian stimulation to increase the number of oocytes and therefore embryos available during assisted reproductive technology. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is invariably associated with increased volume of ovaries which is itself a threat to undergo torsion, and it may cause an additional threat requiring prompt surgical intervention in many situations. Simple release of torsion, sacrificing the devitalized ovarian tissue in part and complete can have effect in continuation of pregnancy; and something like this happened in our case. The patient, 29-year-old, a known case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), conceived through ovulation induction; came with an episode of acute pain abdomen with abdominal distension toward the later part of her first trimester. Ultrasonography was done. Bilateral enlarged ovaries of around 23 cm × 11.8 cm each were seen meeting at the pouch of Douglas with ascites. It was a case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, more specifically, a case of late ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Serum E2 level was 3263 pg/ml. Laparotomy was then done. Intraperitoneally bilateral ovarian torsion was seen with areas of necrosis. The right oophorectomy was done, while on the left side some portion of normal ovarian tissue was preserved. Following the operation, her symptoms were improved. The pregnancy continued uneventfully. Exposure of ovaries to human chorionic gonadotropin or luteinizing hormone following controlled ovarian stimulation by follicle-stimulating hormone underlies most cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is smaller when using gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH) antagonist protocol instead of GnRH agonist protocol for suppression of ovulation during ovarian hyperstimulation. To avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, the best trigger is GnRH agonists. In PCOS patients, metformin is an important aid in reducing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
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Beware of bleomycin toxicity: Fertility preservation for dysgerminoma p. 103
Ashraf M Ali, Paapa Dasari
An 18-year-old female who underwent fertility preservation surgery for dysgerminoma Stage IIa received adjuvant chemotherapy and bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin of four cycles. She presented with cough and breathlessness after 45 days of the last cycle of chemotherapy. She was tachypneic and had decreased SpO2 and was managed by supportive therapy. Her X-ray chest revealed bilateral ground-glass nodular opacity and computed tomography thorax showed evidence of pulmonary fibrosis in the form of intra- and inter-lobular septal fibrosis with surrounding ground-glass opacity. She ultimately died after 5 days of admission due to respiratory failure. Her body weight was 37 kg and she received standard dose of bleomycin and the cumulative dose was 360 U. Bleomycin dose recommendation is not per kg bodyweight, and the complication of pulmonary fibrosis could have been prevented if the dosage schedule as per bodyweight (0.25–0.5 U/kg) is advocated.
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Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia with tumoral prolactin levels p. 107
Nadia Belmahi, Houda Salhi, Said Boujraf, Hanan El Ouahabi
The causes of hyperprolactinemia are varying, from physiological to pharmacological and pathological causes; but some cases are classified as “idiopathic” because of unknown causes. We describe a 29-year-old woman who presented to our department with galactorrhea and secondary amenorrhea. She had no clinical features of hypopituitarism and was not taking any medication. On physical examination, she had bilateral galactorrhea. Prolactin (PRL) level was high, up to 200 ng/ml, and other pituitary and thyroid indices were normal, including testing for macroprolactinemia. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging was normal; and thoraco-abdominopelvic tomography was performed with no abnormalities detected. Cabergoline was started at the dose 0.5 mg/week. Galactorrhea disappeared, the menstrual cycle had become regular, and PRL level decreased to 26 ng/ml. Should all causes of hyperprolactinemia be ruled out and pituitary imaging revealed as negative, idiopathic hyperprolactinemia is therefore diagnosed. In symptomatic patients, treatment with dopaminergic agonists is indicated.
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Proceedings of the fertility preservation – 'Technique and Technology' 2nd congress of the ASFP & FERTIPROTECT 2018 (5th annual conference of the FPSI) p. 111

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